Sex steroid hormones are secreted mainly by the ovary and testis and regulate diverse physiological processes in target tissues. Recent studies have shown that sex steroidogenesis-related mRNA and protein expressions, such as for 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 3β-HSD, 5α-reductase and aromatase cytochrome P-450 (P450arom) enzymes, are detected in the skeletal muscle, while testosterone, estradiol, and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were locally synthesized in skeletal muscle from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Moreover, in animal and human studies, the sex steroidogenesis enzymes and sex steroid hormone levels in skeletal muscle are upregulated by acute and chronic exercise stimulation. The enhanced muscle sex steroidgenesis is associated with glycemic control via upregulation of muscle glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) signaling in obese and diabetic rats and with muscle mass and strength in older men. Thus, an exercise-induced increase of sex steroid hormone in muscle may positively impact age-related concerns such as life-related diseases and sarcopenia.
Santa Cruz Biotechnology offers conjugated and unconjugated monoclonal primary antibodies directed against most steroid receptors. Steroid receptors are nuclear receptors typically found in the cytoplasm. Upon steroid ligand binding, the steroid receptor translocates into the nucleus where it acts as a transcription factor and directs gene expression. Steroid receptor activity has a profound influence on development, metabolism, and organism homeostasis.
Most of our popular antibodies are also available as ImmunoCruz ® Conjugates , including AC , HRP , PE , FITC , Alexa Fluor ® 488 , 546 , 594 , 64 7, 680 , and 790 conjugates for direct Western Blotting and Staining applications, eliminating the need for a secondary antibody. Additional conjugates are also available for many antibodies, including Biotin, TRITC, PE-Cy5, PE-Cy7, APC, APC-Cy7, Alexa Fluor ® 405, PerCP and PerCP-.
Anabolic steroids have therapeutic use and may be prescribed to treat problems such as muscle degeneration associated with disease, male hormone issues, and late onset of puberty. However, some individuals use anabolic steroids illegally to improve athletic performance and build muscle mass. Abuse of anabolic steroid hormones disrupts the normal production of hormones in the body. There are several negative health consequences associated with anabolic steroid abuse. Some of these include infertility, hair loss, breast development in males, heart attacks, and liver tumors . Anabolic steroids also effect the brain causing mood swings and depression.