Steroid therapy patient information

The recipients on prednisone-free maintenance immunosuppression had excellent -yr actuarial patient survival (97%), graft survival (93%), and acceptable acute rejection-free graft survival (89%). The mean serum creatinine level (+/-SD) at one yr was +/- mg/dL and at two yr was +/- mg/dL. We noted that 5% of recipients developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) syndrome; 1%, polyoma nephropathy; 1%, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), and 5% developed post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM). In all, 91% of kidney recipients with functioning grafts remain steroid-free as of 31 December 2005. When compared with historical controls, the recipients on the early steroid-withdrawal (ESW) protocol had comparable graft survival, acute rejection-free survival, graft function, but significantly better patient actuarial survival (p = ). In addition, recipients on the steroid-free protocol had decreased prevalence of four risk factors for cardiovascular disease when compared with historical controls: hypertension (p = ), hyperlipidemia (p = ), weight gain (p = ), and incidence of PTDM (p = ).

Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile . [43] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception . [44] In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. [45] The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. [46] The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.

Steroid therapy patient information

steroid therapy patient information


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