Structure of fats phospholipids and steroids

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and AA (arachidonic acid) are both crucial to the optimal development of the brain and eyes. The importance of DHA and AA in infant nutrition is well established, and both substances are routinely added to infant formulas. Excessive amounts of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and a very high omega-6/omega-3 ratio have been linked with pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 in modern diets is approximately 15:1, whereas ratios of 2:1 to 4:1 have been associated with reduced mortality from cardiovascular disease, suppressed inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and decreased risk of breast cancer. Some researchers have suggested that there is not very strong evidence for the benefits of these ratios, and that it may be better to increase the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids rather than decrease the consumption of omega-6 fatty acids because a reduction of polyunsaturated fats in the diet would increase the incidence of cardiovascular disease.

Because of their particular chemical structure, trans fats are hard for your body to metabolize , so they aren't a good source of energy. Since your body can't really use them, they sit in the fat tissues around the body, hindering its ability to efficiently break down and use other proteins or fats that could help keep it running. As a result, trans fats have been found to raise your LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and lower your HDL (“good”) cholesterol, making people who eat trans fats more likely to have type 2 diabetes, stroke, or heart attack.

Sterol lipids, such as cholesterol and its derivatives, are an important component of membrane lipids, [32] along with the glycerophospholipids and sphingomyelins. The steroids , all derived from the same fused four-ring core structure, have different biological roles as hormones and signaling molecules . The eighteen-carbon (C18) steroids include the estrogen family whereas the C19 steroids comprise the androgens such as testosterone and androsterone . The C21 subclass includes the progestogens as well as the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids . [33] The secosteroids , comprising various forms of vitamin D , are characterized by cleavage of the B ring of the core structure. [34] Other examples of sterols are the bile acids and their conjugates, [35] which in mammals are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol and are synthesized in the liver. The plant equivalents are the phytosterols , such as β-sitosterol , stigmasterol , and brassicasterol ; the latter compound is also used as a biomarker for algal growth. [36] The predominant sterol in fungal cell membranes is ergosterol . [37]

There are an estimated 100,000 different proteins in the human body alone, and each of them is made up of a combination of different combinations of only 20 amino acids . Each protein has a different structure and performs a different function in the body. When we eat protein-containing foods (such as meat, fish, beans, eggs, cheese, etc.) the polypeptide chains are generally broken down in the digestive tract and the individual amino acids are absorbed into our bodies. These amino acids are then recombined into proteins specific to each individual person in a process called protein synthesis .

Structure of fats phospholipids and steroids

structure of fats phospholipids and steroids

There are an estimated 100,000 different proteins in the human body alone, and each of them is made up of a combination of different combinations of only 20 amino acids . Each protein has a different structure and performs a different function in the body. When we eat protein-containing foods (such as meat, fish, beans, eggs, cheese, etc.) the polypeptide chains are generally broken down in the digestive tract and the individual amino acids are absorbed into our bodies. These amino acids are then recombined into proteins specific to each individual person in a process called protein synthesis .

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